• Absorption
    the process by which a substance or object takes in a liquid, gas, waves, or chemical and makes it a part of itself
  • Acid number
    Acid number
    - the number corresponding to the amount of KOH required to neutralize all types of acids in the petroleum product.
  • Additives
    - substances added to the basic product to change its properties, characteristics or quality indicators.
  • Alkaline number
    Alkaline number
    - the amount of acid (perchloric or hydrochloric) required to neutralize all components of the oil base, expressed in KOH equivalents.
  • Alkylate (alkyl benzene)
    Alkylate (alkyl benzene)
    - a wide gasoline fraction consisting almost entirely of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; has an octane number of 90-95 by the motor method; used as a high-octane component of gasoline.
  • Antifoam agent
    Antifoam agent
    - an additive used to suppress foaming in petroleum products under the conditions of their use. It can be a silicone liquid that breaks down bubbles on the surface, or a polymer that reduces the number of small bubbles in the oil itself.
  • Antifreezes
    - cooling low-freezing liquids used in cooling systems of machine engines with water cooling; use aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol with the addition of additives; depending on the content of ethylene glycol, liquids with different freezing points are obtained; produced by a. brand "Tosol" (Technical specifications 88 Ukraine 264-08-93), the figure after the name indicates the content of ethylene glycol in water (% vol.).
  • Antistatic additive
    Antistatic additive
    - an additive that increases the electrical conductivity of hydrocarbon fuels and accelerates the spread of electrostatic charge during the rapid movement of fuel, reducing fire and explosion hazard.
  • Antiwear agents
    Antiwear agents
    - additives or products of their reactions, which form a thin, durable film on highly loaded parts, preventing direct contact of metal surfaces.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons
    Aromatic hydrocarbons
    - class of hydrocarbons containing benzene nuclei; have high anti-knock properties, thermal and chemical stability; used as components in the manufacture of motor fuels.
  • Attrition
    - resistance to moving one object over another. Friction depends on the smoothness of the contacting surfaces, as well as on the force with which they are pressed against each other.
  • Barrel
    - unit of measurement for the volume of oil and petroleum products: 1 barrel = 42 US gallons (approx.), Or 159 liters (approx.); 7.3 barrels = 1 ton (approx.); 6.29 barrels = 1 cubic meter
  • Base oil base (BASE OIL)
    Base oil base (BASE OIL)
    - the basis of commercial lubricating oils produced by a separate manufacturer.
  • Base stock
    Base stock
    - the basis of commercial lubricating oils produced by a separate manufacturer.
  • Bases
    - compounds that interact with acids to form salts and water. Alkalis are water-soluble bases used in the purification of petroleum products to remove acidic impurities. Oil-soluble bases are included in oil additives to neutralize acids formed during fuel combustion or oil oxidation.
  • Benzol
    - the simplest compound of the aromatic hydrocarbons class; the best solvent for all compounds contained in oil and its fractions; mixes up in any ratio with gasoline, kerosene, mineral oils, turpentine, etc., slightly soluble in water and insoluble in glycerin; poisonous.
  • Burning ring
    Burning ring
    - adhesion of the piston ring in its groove in the piston engine or reciprocating compressor due to large deposits in the area of the piston rings.
  • Catalytic converter
    Catalytic converter
    - part of the automotive system for reducing the toxicity of exhaust gases. Oxidative neutralizers remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from the exhaust gases. Reducing neutralizers affect the content of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the gases. Both neutralizers use catalysts containing precious metals (platinum, palladium or rhodium), which can be exposed to effect of lead from fuel or oil compounds.
  • Cavitation
    - the formation of space in the flowing liquid as a result of placing a stationary object in its path, or in a stationary liquid as a result of the movement of the object in it, for example, behind the stirrer blades or in the pump when incorrectly filled.
  • Cinder
    - metal-containing deposits that are formed in the combustion chamber and on engine parts during operation at high temperatures.
  • Cloud temperature
    Cloud temperature
    - the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals appears in the oil or distillate fuel cooled under standard conditions. Indicates the tendency of a substance to clog filters or small holes in cold weather.
  • Coke residue
    Coke residue
    - coke-like substance remaining after holding the oil at high temperature under controlled conditions.
  • Cold start simulator
    Cold start simulator
    - a viscometer with an average value of the shear rate, which allows you to predict whether a cold engine will develop starting speed when using this oil.
  • Colloidal stability
    Colloidal stability
    - ability of greasing not to allocate oil from the structure.
  • Compression ratio
    Compression ratio
    - in internal combustion engines, the ratio of the volumes above the piston at its position at the bottom and at the top dead center.
  • Content of mechanical impurities
    Content of mechanical impurities
    - determined by filtering 100 g of petroleum product diluted in gasoline through a dried and weighed paper filter. The filter sediment is washed with gasoline or an alcohol toluene mixture. The filter is then dried again and weighed.
  • Corrosion activity
    Corrosion activity
    - of the oil product is evaluated for corrosion on the surface of the metal sample after testing in this oil product. Corrosion of copper samples is assessed by color change, cast iron and steel samples - the number of corrosion nodules (spots, dots and dulling), and lead samples - loss of weight.
  • Corrosion and rust inhibitor
    Corrosion and rust inhibitor
    - additive (zinc dithiophosphates, metal phenolates, alkali metal sulfonates, fatty acids and amines), which prevents corrosion and rusting of metal parts in contact with the lubricant.
  • Corrosion on a copper plate
    Corrosion on a copper plate
    - qualitative assessment of the tendency of the oil product to cause corrosion of pure copper.
  • Cracking
    - a process in which heavy molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules break down into lighter ones.
  • Demulsifier
    - substances used to destroy oil and oil emulsions.
  • Density
    - the mass of the oil product per unit volume. It is measured by hydrometers, pycnometers and scales.
  • Deposits in the engine
    Deposits in the engine
    - accumulation of sludge, varnish deposits and carbon residues due to a breakthrough into the crankcase of unburned or partially burned fuel or due to partial decomposition of crankcase oil. Water condensed from combustion products, carbon particles, fuel decomposition products or lubricating oil additives, dust and metal particles are also involved in the formation of these deposits.
  • Detergent
    - a substance (organometallic sodium compounds, phenolates, phosphates and sulfates of calcium and magnesium) added to fuel or oil to maintain the cleanliness of engine parts.
  • Detonation
    - engine operation mode, in which the process of fuel combustion is explosive and accompanied by a metal knock, an increase in the temperature of the cylinder heads and power increase; strong detonation can lead to engine failure.
  • Diesel fuels
    Diesel fuels
    - fuel for engines with ignition of the fuel-air mixture from compression; obtained by mixing straight-run and hydrotreated fractions, may contain additives (depressants, detergents, increasing the cetane number, anti-smoke, etc.); diesel fuels are subdivided into diesel fuels for high-speed diesels and gas turbine engines of land and ship equipment and motor fuels for medium-speed and low-speed diesels.
  • Dropping temperature
    Dropping temperature
    - drop temperature of the first drop of oil heated in a standard cup of small volume. By the temperature of the drop the upper temperature limit of the efficiency of the oil is approximately determined. It is recommended to apply the oil to temperatures that are 20-50 ° C below the drop temperature.
  • Emulsifier
    - an additive that fosters the formation of a stable mixture or emulsion of oil and water.
  • Engine oil thinning
    Engine oil thinning
    - contamination of the crankcase oil with unburned fuel, leading to a decrease in viscosity and flash point. May indicate wear or misalignment of the fuel system devices.
  • Flammability of petroleum products
    Flammability of petroleum products
    - according to GOST 12.1.044-89, oil and oil products belong to the group of flammable substances and, depending on the temperature, the outbreaks are subdivided into flammable liquids with flashes of 61oC and below and into hot liquids. Flammable liquids with flashes of 28 oС and below are considered especially dangerous. While developing petroleum products, other indicators of fire and explosion hazard are also determined (selfignition temperature, area of ​​ignition, temperature limits of ignition, explosive concentration of steam in a mixture with air, maximum permissible concentration of steam in air, etc.)
  • Flash point
    Flash point
    - the minimum temperature at which the liquid supports instant combustion (flash), but less than that at which prolonged combustion is observed (ignition temperature). Flash point is an important indicator of the fire and explosion hazard associated with petroleum products.
  • Forced crankcase ventilation (PCV)
    Forced crankcase ventilation (PCV)
    - removal system of the burst gases from the crankcase and their return through the carburettor and a soaking-up collector in the combustion chamber where the recirculated hydrocarbons burn. A special valve controls the flow of gases from the crankcase to reduce hydrocarbon emissions.
  • Fractional composition
    Fractional composition
    - the quantitative content of the fraction boiling out in certain temperature ranges, the remainder and losses during distillation under specified conditions.
  • Gasoline
    liquid petroleum fuels, boiling in the temperature range 28 - 215 ° C and intended for use in internal combustion engines with forced ignition;
  • Hydrocracking
    - the process of oil refining and its products, combining the destruction and hydrogenation of raw materials; carried out at temperature of 350-450 ° C, pressure of 30-140 atm. in the presence of catalysts (platinum, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten); depending on the process conditions and the type of raw material, you can get: from gasoline - liquefied gas; from kerosene fractions, vacuum distillates and residual oil components - gasolines, jet and diesel fuels; from gas and paraffin - high-index oils, etc .; Hydrocracking is used in the production of gasolines, jet and diesel fuels, the yield of light petroleum products increases to 70% of oil, and the content of sulfur and unsaturated hydrocarbons reduces to a minimum.
  • Inhibitor
    - an additive that improves the characteristics of the oil product by suppressing unwanted chemical reactions, such as oxidation inhibitor, rust inhibitor, etc.
  • Insoluble contaminants
    Insoluble contaminants
    - contaminants that accumulate in the working oils due to dust, dirt, wear particles and / or oxidation products. Often defined as insoluble in pentane or benzene, which reflects the nature of these insoluble products.
  • Kerosene
    - medium lightness distilate, obtained by oil refining, intermediate between gas oil and gaseous fuels; used for lighting and heating, as well as for the production of fuel for jet and turbojet aircraft engines.
  • Kinematic viscosity
    Kinematic viscosity
    - shows the relationship between dynamic viscosity and fluid density. This is the main indicator of lubricating oils. It is determined in capillary viscometers by measuring the flow time of a known volume of liquid through a small calibrated hole at a given temperature. Kinematic viscosity is measured in mm2 / sec or centistokes (cSt).
  • Liquid friction
    Liquid friction
    - occurs between molecules of gas or liquid in motion, and is expressed as shear stress.
  • Loss of viscosity
    Loss of viscosity
    - the difference between the viscosity of fresh oil and the same oil after its operation in the engine or a special test for the destruction of the polymer.
  • Lubrication
    - control of friction and wear by introducing a friction-reducing film between the moving surfaces in contact. The film can be liquid, solid, or plastic.
  • Naphthenic base oil
    Naphthenic base oil
    - type of hydrocarbon liquid produced from naphthenic oil containing a high percentage of cyclic methylene hydrocarbons.
  • Octane number
    Octane number
    - a conditional indicator characterizing the resistance of gasolines to detonation and numerically corresponding to the detonation resistance of the model mixture of isooctane and n-heptane. It is measured by testing in a standard single-cylinder engine with a variable degree of compression, by comparison with the primary reference fuel. In mild conditions, the octane number is determined by the research method, and in harsh conditions, the octane number is determined by the motor method.
  • Oil
    - a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weight.
  • Oil foaming
    Oil foaming
    - the power of oil to produce foam due to the rotating parts of the mechanisms; caused by the presence of surface-active substances; oil foaming worsens the lubricating properties of oil and their stability, reduces the reliability of robotic mechanisms, increases the corrosion activity of oil; determined in accordance with GOST 21058; to reduce oil foaming add antifoam additives.
  • Oil refining
    Oil refining
    - a series of processes designed to convert crude oil and its fractions into target petroleum products, including thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, polymerization, alkylation, reforming, hydrocracking, hydroforming, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, hydrofinishing, extraction, refining, dissolving with bleaching earth and deasphalting.
  • Oxidation
    - occurs when oxygen influences on petroleum products. The process is accelerated by heating, light, metal catalysts and the presence of water, acids or solid contaminants and leads to increased viscosity and the deposits formation.
  • Oxygen-containing fuel
    Oxygen-containing fuel
    - fuel for internal combustion engines, which contains oxygen in a molecule, namely alcohols, ethers and esters. The term also refers to mixtures of gasoline with oxygen-containing products, namely to the flue, which contains 10% by volume of anhydrous ethanol in unleaded gasoline. Oxygen-containing products are oxygen-containing ash-free organic compounds, such as alcohols and esters, which can be used as fuel or as fuel substitutes.
  • Penetration
    - depth of immersion in the cone grease of the standard sizes and weight mixed in the special mixer within 5 s at a certain temperature (standard conditions 25 ° C). Measured in tenths of a millimeter. Indicator of consistency (density) of lubricants.
  • Petrochemical product
    Petrochemical product
    - an intermediate chemical product derived from oil, liquid hydrocarbons or natural gas.
  • Petroleum bitumens
    Petroleum bitumens
    - a mixture of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and asphalt-resinous substances containing compounds of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen; produced from residues of oil distillation, cracking and oil refining (see Appendix 1.2); depending on the area of ​​application petroleum bitumens are subdivided into: • road - for the construction and repair of road surfaces, subdivided into viscous (grades of the BND and BN series, GOST 22245) and liquid (grades of the SG and MG series, GOST 11955); • construction - for various construction objects, subdivided into construction (BN series brands, GOST 6617), roofing (BNK series brands, GOST 9548) and insulating (BNI series brands, GOST 9812); • special - for various purposes, subdivided into petroleum bitumens for paints and varnishes (grades B, C, D) and petroleum bitumens for filling battery mastics; • high-melting softeners - for use in rubber, tire and other industries (A series brands).
  • Polishing the cylinder
    Polishing the cylinder
    - excessive smoothing of traces of surface treatment of the cylinder or cylinder liner in engines to a mirror shine, leading to a deterioration of the sealing ability of the rings and increase of oil consumption.
  • Pour point
    Pour point
    - an indicator of the ability of oil or distillate fuel to remain fluid at low temperatures. This is the lowest temperature at which the liquid remains fluid after cooling under certain conditions.
  • Pour point depressor
    Pour point depressor
    - an additive used to lower the pour point or improve the low-temperature fluidity of petroleum products.
  • Premature ignition
    Premature ignition
    - ignition of the fuel-air mixture in the gasoline engine until a spark on the spark plug. It is often caused by deposits of fuel or oil in the combustion chamber, reduces power and can lead to engine failure.
  • Preservation lubrication
    Preservation lubrication
    - connection for covering metal surfaces by a membrane which protects against rust. Usually used to protect equipment during storage.
  • Pumpability
    - viscosity characteristic of oil at low temperature and low speed and shear stress, which characterizes the ability of oil to enter the pump and be supplied by the pump for lubrication of moving parts.
  • Regeneration
    - the process of recycling of used lubricating oil and restoring it to a state close to fresh, by filtration, adsorption with bleaching earth or more complex methods.
  • Ring
    - an annular metal element which is established in a groove of the piston and provides consolidation of gases during combustion. It is also used to distribute oil in the cylinder.
  • Scoring
    - catastrophic wear observed in engines due to local welding and destruction of welding points. It can be prevented by using anti-wear, anti-emergency additives and friction modifiers.
  • Sludge
    - thick, dark sediment, similar in consistency to mayonnaise, which accumulates on stationary internal surfaces of the engine. It is usually easily removed if not turned into carbonaceous deposits by heat. Its formation is associated with oil overload with insoluble contaminants.
  • Stability index against destruction
    Stability index against destruction
    - the degree of influence of the thickening additive on the loss of kinematic viscosity of the oil during its operation in the engine or when tested in special conditions.
  • Synthetic oil
    Synthetic oil
    - lubricating fluids, most often ethers or polyalphaolefins, obtained by synthesis from chemical reagents, and not by oil refining. Synthesis using certain chemical compounds makes it possible to obtain products with desired properties.
  • Tar
    - black resinous mass of different consistency, remaining after distillation from light oil and most of the oil fractions; the yield of various oils is 15-30%; raw material for the production of bitumen.
  • Tribological characteristics
    Tribological characteristics
    - show the ability of oils to improve the performance of rubbing surfaces by minimizing wear and friction. They are rated for wear, anti-friction and extreme pressure properties. For laboratory assessment of antiwear and antifriction properties, four-ball friction machine ChShM and vibrotribometer "Optimol SRV" with a reciprocating motion of the "ball-plane" friction pair are the most widely used. The lubricating properties of oils make it possible to judge their ability to prevent any kind of material removal from the contacting surfaces (normal wear, seizure, scuffing, crumbling, etc.).
  • Tribology
    - the science of the interaction of moving surfaces of one relatively to another, which includes the study of lubrication, friction and wear.
  • Viscosity index
    Viscosity index
    - an empirical number that indicates the degree of change in the viscosity of the oil with changing temperature. Oils with a high viscosity index show less dependence of viscosity on temperature than oils with a low viscosity index. To increase the viscosity index, deep hydrotreating of base oils is carried out or viscous additives (oil-soluble polymers) or synthetic (polymer) oils are used.
  • Viscosity modifier
    Viscosity modifier
    - additive to lubricating oils, usually a high molecular weight polymer (polymers and copolymers of olefins, methacrylates, dienes or alkylated styrenes), which reduces the tendency to change the viscosity of the oil with temperature.
  • Viscosity of petroleum products
    Viscosity of petroleum products
    - the property of a liquid to resist movement due to internal molecular interactions in a moving environment. Dynamic viscosity - physical constant; determined in capillary or rotational viscometers (GOST 1929) and measured in pascal seconds (Pa × s) or in poise (P). 1P = 0.1Pa × s. Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to the density of the liquid at the same temperature (GOST 33), has a measurement of m2 / s, mm2 / s or 1mm2 / s = 10-6m2 / s = 1cSt (centistokes); in foreign practice, kinematic viscosity is also measured in Saybolt's universal seconds (SUS), Reidwood's seconds (R), etc. Conditional viscosity is the ratio of the expiration time of a certain amount of a test oil product at a given temperature from an Engler viscometer to the expiration time of distilled water under the same conditions, expressed in arbitrary units (VU) or Engler's degrees (oE) (GOST 6258). Conversion of viscosity, expressed in different units, is carried out according to special tables.
  • Volatility
    - the ability of petroleum products to change from liquid to gaseous state, assessed by the saturated vapor pressure and fractional composition. The volatility of oils and lubricants at a given temperature is determined by the loss of mass of the sample within 1 hour, and expressed in% by weight of the sample.
  • Water content
    Water content
    - is determined by heating a sample of oil with dehydrated gasoline in a Dean-Stark distillation apparatus equipped with a refrigerator and a graduated receiver. The condensed solvent and water are continuously separated in the receiver. The water remains in the graduated part of the trap and the gasoline returns to the distillation vessel. The norm of water content - "traces" means no more than 0.03% water by weight.